Girls drink milk too
Positive messaging is what advertisers should be doing, instead of heedlessly reinforcing gender stereotypes, writes Afia Salam.
Is this a rant? Well, sort of, although I usually restrict my rants to social media forums. But lately I have been a bigger ‘consumer’ of the media than ever before. Working from home, I usually have the television on, and what is beamed by way of advertising is, well, not very palatable.
The debate on the commodification of women has been done to death. We are seeing a lesser number of women pushing ‘men only’ products.
As for the issue of culturally inappropriate imagery, it may resurface along with the swirls of lawn now that summer is here. This is not what this rant is about.
Neither is it about the offensive ‘skin whitening’ creams promising a happily ever after. Or wedded bliss and acceptance by the in-laws by conjuring up the right kind of fragrance in cooked rice (Maggie Umda) and laundered clothes (Sunlight). I live in hope that these will eventually fade, or at least become reflective of another breed of women, who march ahead, notching up successes in fields as diverse as mountain climbing, flying planes, performing complicated surgery or teaching difficult subjects in remote parts of Pakistan; every one of them completely unmindful of the effect these activities may have on their complexion. Or culinary skills!
But I digress. This is about the gender bias in the advertising of products which lay claim to improving health, growth, well being and which reinforce dangerous stereotypes that have far reaching effects on society. And please don’t anyone fling the line at me that “it is just advertising; it has no effect.” Everyone associated with this industry knows the purpose of advertising is to have an effect on those it is targeted at – en route to the bottom line.
The problem I have with the advertising by some leading brands is their extreme gender imbalance, nay exclusion. Be it a brand of milk, (Nestlé Milk, Nido)… better still, of a fortified kind, or a food supplement (Horlicks), the talent shown in the commercial is that of a boy – never a girl! Boys are shown guzzling glasses of milk and adding IQ points, smearing butter and margarine on parathas and grabbing cups in sporting meets, adding nutrition supplements to their food and inches to their height.
As I mentioned earlier, I usually rant on social media. I did on this issue too, and while there was some support for my point of view, it was the justification given for the gender exclusive trend that had me stumped! ‘Mothers prefer boys’.
Yes, a cultural truth, but not one that needs to be perpetuated. Advertising is target market oriented, so since there is a tilt in favour of the male child, it has to cater to that niche… true again. But isn’t advertising about creating a demand to lead to a sale?
How will the addition of a girl in products not meet any marketing and advertising goals? The kind of products I have mentioned and the market they target has a profile of mothers who are usually without such biases. And if these biases are inherent, they can be nudged away with the right kind of messaging. Sometimes all it needs is for someone to realise that their biases are baseless.
The segment of children depicted in these commercials is not one where girls would be made to wait until their male sibling has eaten so that they can be given the leftovers. These too are the harsh realities of our patriarchal landscape, but the households shown in these ads are not from there.
Also, judging by the monumental failure of our family planning programme, this single male child family may be a latent aspiration, but is far removed from reality. Wouldn’t a mother (or father) pouring two glasses of milk or stirring in spoonfuls of food supplements or ‘buttering up’ toast and parathas and then handing them over to a son and a daughter be more believable?
Surely brands with millions to spend on promotion in order to gain billions can afford the addition of a girl in the same concept? Even the film directors will not be too hard pressed to fit them in the same frame as their male sibling.
The social costs of the visual exclusion are far greater, especially in Pakistan, which ranks abysmally low on the nutrition index – 97 out of 125! It also scores a shameful 19.3 out of 100 on the Global Hunger Index. Scratch the surface, and you will see a clear tilt in this imbalance, negatively impacting women in general, and girls in particular.
When existing cultural biases are entrenched deep into the psyche, positive messaging, which need not even be a hard sell, can play a role in chipping away the stereotypes. It has been done elsewhere with success and the advertising industry across the world in general and in Pakistan in particular, has been putting forth some brilliant public service messages. There is no dearth of creativity here. Some of the current advertising, slice of life as well as fantasy, have engaging concepts, humour and great execution.
Advertising is usually taken to be an extended arm of marketing and the sales department of a brand. Try rocking the boat a bit; go beyond the market surveys and insights and rely on gut feel. Even if keeping an eye on the numbers is the objective, there is no harm in suggesting that the client attempt to broaden the customer base.
I still remember a brand of children’s biscuits – Choco Chum – which had no competitor in the market and enjoyed healthy growth. The agency urged, cajoled, and finally convinced the brand into doing an ad campaign and sales skyrocketed. They pushed the market envelope and the brand reaped the benefits.
So advertising does make a difference. Gender insensitive brand messaging neither makes good business sense, nor is it socially responsible. Maybe the advertising industry, which has the money and the clout could launch an affirmative action plan and weed out such practices.
How about kick-starting the brainstorming process by putting on a proxy and watching (on YouTube) the excellent advocacy animation developed by UNICEF called ‘Meena kee kahani’ addressing just this issue.
After all, we too have many Meenas in our midst. Let us not allow them to slip off the radar!
Afia Salam is a freelance journalist and has worked as a creative head at three agencies. firstname.lastname@example.org
First published in the May-June 2014 issue.
The story developed like a gathering storm. First there was news of a security breach when some armed men cut through the fence from the “Fokker gate’ near the Ispahani Hanger, close to the Pehelwah Goth area which had already been cited as a security risk many times.
Ispahani wide-body aircraft maintenance hangar at Karachi Airport in early 1980s. In late 1970s, PIA spent more than 17 million US Dollars for construction of a new hangar capable of housing two wide-bodied aircraft. The construction of hangar and related workshop was completed and commissioned in 1980. The hangar has been named after Mirza Ahmad Ispahani who was the longest serving chairman of PIA from 1955 to 1962.
Television audience was just trying to catch its breath over the horror unfolding in Taftan, on the Pak-Iran border where over 22 Shia Zaireen lost their lives to a suicide attack, in a manner that has such a familiar, horrible ring to it.
As if that breaking news was not heartbreaking enough, news about the security breach at the Karachi Airport wherein ASF check post was attacked splashed across the screens.
First it was that the ASF personnel had been injured and the intruders had come in. Then the entire incident snowballed wherein they not only killed the ASF personnel, but a PIA employee in the Cargo terminal, as they moved rapidly deeper into the Karachi airport.
The fire fights broke out, Rangers moved in to assist the ASF personnel, sounds of blasts and heavy weaponry rent the night air, and then there was news of the terrorists moving towards an international airliner on the runway, ready to depart, and stiff resistance in which they were able to hit an oil depot, sending out leaping flames billowing smoke.
The media rushed into this chaotic scene, and added to the confusion by throwing in unconfirmed, unattributed, very speculative news, including that of aircraft on fire.
That there can NEVER be any short cuts to experience was very clearly visible on a couple of channels who rushed their senior reporters. That is where some voices of sanity could be heard. The rest were proving prime examples of irresponsible journalism, which showed that the back-end support from the newsrooms was just as lacking in experiencing and ability to deal with such crisis.
Troops movement were shown, until better sense prevailed, Names of the fallen personnel were being aired, when protocol as well as sensitivity demands that the family be notified before the names are revealed. Bodies were shown, their condition graphically described, location of the mortuary as well as injured personnel was revealed too. This is all against the agreed media norms.
When will the media learn? Despite being involved in media trainings, it is at times like these I feel it is a losing battle. Pakistan is supposed to be a ‘happening place’.. not for all the right reasons, but even then, these happenings provide ample opportunity for the media to learn and improve itself, for practise is supposed to make you perfect, instead of being repetitively imperfect!
However, that is whole different discourse. Let us talk about the #KarachiAirportAttack. How is history repeated? Why was the name of the Mehran and Kamra airbase bandied about? And why has a huge sigh of relief been heaved simply because in the final analysis, the ‘assets’ remained safe.. despite the loss of 16 precious lives.
Is it because, as reports during this crisis indicated, prior warning had been received of an imminent attack on the Karachi Airport, and yet it happened? just like in the case of Mehran and Kamra bases? If that warning had been given a week ago, what extra security measures had been taken? was the alert level raised to match the threat level? Apparently not.
The ‘jungle’ that is being mentioned across the perimeter fence from where one group of these terrorists intruded is not a Redwood forest.. those are just bushes which in any case should not have been obscuring the view of any person on watch, if there was one.
The area adjoining Pehelwan Goth should have extra security not just because of its proximity to a populated area, but because of the presence of the operational installations of the airport, like the RADAR, which are located there. They are much too easily accessible.
Also, even after the end of the operation, the other entry point has not been mentioned, despite acknowledgement of the fact that the terrorists came from two different points.
However, what bothers me, and takes me back to another incident at the Karachi Airport, way back in the mid 80′s.. in September 1986 to be precise when the PanAm Flight 01 was stormed by terrorists, who has entered the airport effortlessly, because they were wearing ASF uniforms, and were in a van with ASF markings.
They were just saluted in, and went right up to the aircraft, and boarded it, making the passengers hostage. The crew, following protocols, escaped from the cockpit so the terrorists were not able to get the plane to fly to a destination of their choice. The saga lasted for over two days, and had a violent and bloody end with over 20 people killed when Pakistani commandos stormed the plane, killed most of the hijackers, but not without loss of life to the passengers either.
So is being in a uniform enough of a right of passage to even high security areas? Is this attitude that is the Achilles heal of our security set up? Why hasn’t the protocol of questioning persons of one’s own force trickled down through the forces that are manning the entry points. There MUST NOT be any exceptions to the rule… be they women, children, people in uniform, specially those wearing your own uniform.
It is these lapses that have cost us dearly in the past, but we never seem to learn from them. These people entered not only wearing uniforms, which are not really all that hard to acquire, but came in with heavy weaponry. Irrespective of the origin of those weapons, which again is the subject of another debate, the fact that so much armament cross the security parameter of the largest civilian airport of the country is scary prospect.
One doesn’t want to take anything away from the round of congratulations taking place at the ‘end’ of the operation in which ASF, Rangers, Sindh Police and the Zarrar Force of the Pakistan Army ‘cleared’ it of the terrorists within 5 hours.
3 of the intruders blew themselves up, 7 were taken down.. none survived so the who, when, what, why of the incident will need some other modes of answers. 16 others lost their lives, ASF, Police, Rangers, PIA and CAA staffers. 22 have suffered injuries of varying degrees and severity. Aircraft remained safe and just the cargo building suffered damage.
But isn’t there another damage we need to assess amidst all the thumping of the chest and backslapping? The damage to an already fragile image of the efficacy of intelligence and security apparatus which is supposed to pre-empt, and prevent these incidents. Damage control and fire fighting takes the shine off the remarks about the ‘ability to deal with all manifestations of terrorism’ etc.
Or is it this very question that is damaging?
Raining on the farmers’ parade
The recent out of season downpour accompanied by hailstones the size of golf balls has come at a terrible time; the old crop was either being readied for harvest, or had been recently harvested during the cutting season, but was still in the fields and not in the safety of a warehouse or store.
Pictures by Aamer Hayat Bhandara
The farmers in the bread basket of Pakistan have suffered huge losses as a result. Explaining the dynamics of this abnormal occurrence, Pakistan’s Chief Meteorologist, Dr. Ghulam Rasool made a foreboding remark that a similar abnormality had occurred in 1997-98, which had resulted in a 3 year period of drought in Pakistan.
He was skeptical about the efficacy of the in-place early warning systems despite the fact that the Food Security Division of the Government stays well connected with the Pakistan Meteorological Department, which has a special section of farm sector specific weather information on its website. However, he says the task of outreach of that information lies with the Agriculture Extension Division, which has not been able to cover the farmer community in its entirety.
Giving details of the damage, Amir Hayat Bhandara, a farmer from the Pakpattan area shared pictures showing the damage to the standing as well as harvested crop. He says that damage is so extensive that the government should carry out an in-depth evaluation, and even declare the areas as calamity hit so they can be provided with relief through waivers of taxes, loan repayments, and subsidy support in the supply and pricing of agricultural inputs. He said farmers have also been calling for crop insurance in all districts in lieu of the unpredictability of the rainy season.
Pictures by Aamer Hayat Bhandara
Dr. Pervaiz Amir, Pakistan’s leading agro-economist and climate change expert says that the rains and hail, accompanied by high velocity winds have laid waste to wheat bundles in the fields, and have also damaged livestock.
The capricious weather will also have a negative affect on mango production. Dr. Amir warns that there will be a major reduction in mango yields due to the strong, windy conditions. This may result in at least a 25% or more increase in the price of mangoes. However, the reduced temperatures and moisture will prove beneficial for cotton sowing. It may even be good for sowing rice and preparing land for future use, and may also have a positive impact on fodder production.
In the context of climate change, adaptive measures through crop rotation will have to be enforced, drastically altering the current cropping calendar. He urges bridging the Information and knowledge gap and making farmers aware of the forecasted changes as the agricultural sector desperately needs to be climate proofed.
Dr. Qaiser, a research scholar studying the impacts of climate change on agriculture also cautions about not keeping pace with new developments, especially new pests and diseases that are likely to attack the crops in view of the changing climate. These will not be eradicated by the pesticides currently in use and may cause further damage.
The findings of a research project called ‘A Micro-Economic Study on Climate Change: Adaptation in the Indus Eco Region’, jointly conducted by WWF-Pakistan, LUMS (Lahore University of Management Sciences), LSE (London School of Economics) and supported by IDRC (International Development Research Center), warn of an almost 10% loss in agricultural productivity due to these impacts, which would compromise food security for Pakistan. This research was spearheaded by Dr. Adil Najam, former Vice Chancellor of LUMS, and a leading authority on the environment and climate change.
Even the National Climate Change Policy has articulated the existential threat of climate change to Pakistan. It very emphatically states that “only by devising and implementing appropriate adaptation measures will it be possible to ensure water, food and energy security for the country….”
Leading environmental lawyer Rafay Alam has listed the key adaptive measures that need to be taken to safeguard the agricultural sector.
They include changing the cropping pattern according to the availability of water, better production management, and more informed decision making on use of land. Of course this is directly linked to the judicious use of the available water resources, which are depleting, and planning for the future, coupled with research, and the dissemination of this information through farmer trainings and workshops.
However, all that has to be part of a long term, on-going strategy to safeguard the agricultural sector. For the present, the government needs to send its field forces out to assess damage and assist the farming community that has been hit hard by these untimely rainy spells. The long term plans will have to go hand in hand with damage control.
Afia Salam is a freelance journalist who writes about environment, climate change, media, digital freedom and gender issues
The term ‘ tunnel vision’ has always been used as a pejorative. People accused of having it are also variously called myopic, short-sighted, shallow, etc. But when one hears of grandiose projects like Islamabad New City, to be made accessible to the old one through a tunnel to be drilled through the National Park in the Margalla Hills, one wishes to plaster all of the above words and more on those conceiving the project!
What goes on in the heads of the people who come up with these schemes? Are they still rooted in the infrastructure development model that now stands rejected everywhere because it was unmindful of sustainability? Do they get a high thinking of brick and mortar, steel and glass structures coming up at the detriment of the existing natural and social environment, disturbing the ecosystem and displacing communities? Or do they drool over the prospects of billions of rupees/dollars changing hands?
Is that what it is about? Building a shiny, new wide road to connect Islamabad to Haripur by shaving off 10 to 15 minutes off the existing road? Is that what their cost-benefit analysis justifies? Or will the real benefit come from the real estate bonanza this project will spin off?
These lop-sided priorities are not the only reason why Islamabad’s civil society has banded together, under the aegis of the Margalla Hills Society, led by the seasoned campaigner, former civil servant, Roedad Khan.
Luckily for them, they have found another champion for their cause in Senator Mushahid Hussain, who had moved an adjournment motion in the Senate, and highlighted the illegality of the intent in a forceful enough manner that made the Supreme Court take a suo moto notice.
The Supreme Court has also put on notice CDA, NHA, Cabinet Division and the provincial governments of Punjab and KPK, though this project had to have the buy in from the Planning Commission, ECNEC and the Environment Protection Agency.
What is extremely interesting is that this is proving to be quite a cloak and dagger game, with authorities publicly denying that any such project is in the offing and Roedad Khan adamant that those in the know have assured him that it is going ahead.
Now that the matter is before the Supreme Court hopefully it will become clearer. What also needs to be made clear is why this tunnel is such a bad idea.
The environmentalists think it is a bad idea, and rightly so. The area Margalla Hills (12605 hectares) the Rawal Lake, andShakarparian Sports and Cultural complex was declared as a National Park in 1980.
This is one of the 29 National Parks in Pakistan, which fall under the category of Protected Areas. As of 2012, 22 of these are under supervision of respective provincial governments and remaining are in private care. Legislation giving them this status enshrines in itself the intent to conserve the flora, fauna and biodiversity in its natural state.
However, they can be made accessible to the public for recreation, education and research. The latter has been more than taken care of through access roads into the Park. It is the former, the natural assets that stand threatened by development, in a manner that can be described as unsustainable.
A member of the Steering Committee formed by the concerned citizens, with the assistance of the Margalla Hills Society, Bilal Haq said:
Ostensibly the reason of the tunnel is to reduce travel time from Haripur to Islamabad so as to facilitate the people of that area. This can be done by making the existing road infrastructure better, making it signal free. An arrangement like this would reduce only 15-20 minutes from a total of about an hours travel time compared to a direct tunnel.
This incremental improvement is not worth destroying the natural Margalla habitat. And if the proposed tunnel is part of a corridor to connect Rawat then it will have to be close or on the existing residential areas of Islamabad (F-6/F-7). However, if the intent is to get the value of the already acquired real estate near and on the Margallas then this purpose will be served by the tunnel.”
Dr. Farrukh Chishty, also a member of the Steering Committee cautioned that; “The proposed Margalla tunnel has the potential to cause significant and irreversible environmental damage. This includes loss of biodiversity, unmitigated air and water pollution due to crushing of rocks and emission of harmful gases from heavy machinery.
The risks of quarrying in a seismic zone should also be considered, as mining and quarrying blasts generate ground motion which resembles natural earthquakes – this could lead to unintended consequences as Islamabad is on five major fault lines. Further, a great amount of resources, including water and fuel will be spent on creating this tunnel, which ultimately will benefit only a few in the short term and harm all in the now and the future.
Their call to attention is now attracting the notice of the authorities, who can sense a fight on their hands, and by the Islamabad civil society, which will have to come up and show that a segment of the society is willing to own this city as its own! There have been protest meetings and walks at the park to raise the issue, and the above mentioned Steering Committee is a result of these collective efforts.
Dr. Jawad Chishty, of Subh e Nau, an organisation that has been in the forefront of environment, and a member of the Steering Committee puts forward many arguments against this tunnel project:
He says the first argument is moral. This is a protected piece of land that the Government itself set aside for conservation. Do we want to allow the rape of this pristine land for profits that line a few pockets? Whatever the economic argument for it, the ethical/moral argument is the strongest. It is based on health, social, environmental and countless other impacts. There is no way to size up nature, and therefore, it is not possible to humanly calculate the costs of this project.
The second is on the basis of environmental, social and health impacts. Pollution of all types, air, water, land and noise is going to increase and cause irreparable damage to the health of the populations on both sides of the tunnel.
The area is meant for conservation, and Monal, La Montana, street lights and rabid commercialisation have and are seriously damaging the eco-system of the area. The Rawal Lake area has been destroyed in the name of the Lake View Park.
The Biodiversity argument is also extremely important. The MHNP is a sanctuary for wildlife and plants, including birds and animals such as the grey goral, the barking deer and the leopard, many of which are becoming extinct, or are threatened.
Many do not know that Islamabad is a wild bird sanctuary, and many migratory birds from different regions of the world stay here. This is mainly because of the MHNP. Poor air quality because of the transportation and road building has reduced these populations. Implementation of planned mass transit schemes are the need for Islamabad, not a tunnel that brings in unimaginable and unaccountable damage for decades to come.
Dr. Chishty is a strong advocate of the ‘precautionary principle’ of not undertaking any step that can threaten the environment as it directly or indirectly hurts our health and interests. If people want to make money there is always the option of developing eco-tourism, but then of course, the monetary windfall will not be comparable.
So, while the ‘stakeholders’ trudge off to the court to explain the pros and cons of this project, or even the fact whether it is a figment of the imagination or a clear and present danger, there is a need for the civil society to act as a watchdog to safeguard this national, natural asset.
I want to thank some lady Parliamentarians. Yes I am being gender biased by making a distinction here but deliberately so. Kudos to Senator Saeeda Iqbal and MNA Maryam Aurangzeb for the spunk they have shown in getting the order of former PM, Raja Pervez Ashraf of removal of ban on timber movement from Gilgit-Baltistan reversed.
This order had been passed by him on his last day in office, despite forests being a provincial subject and outside the purview of the Prime Minister. The seemingly innocuous order ‘allowed’ for the transportation of the illegally and legally cut timber that had accumulated there to lower down the country, but resulted in indiscriminate felling of trees in Diamer and the upper reaches by the timber mafia, which made a huge killing, to the tune of 8 billion rupees.
This fact was recorded by environmental activists and community stewards who were up against a powerful adversary and a powerless administration. No one wields greater power in those areas than the timber mafia that has been responsible for denuding our already meager forest cover, standing at a shameful 4.8 % as against the internationally recommended 25%. Of course the government claims it to be 5.3%, which is neither here nor there!
While friends of the environment, which are few and far between in this country anyway, learnt of the order, they immediately lodged protest. They know that the ‘movement’ would not be confined only to the existing stockpile. But their protests were slow to gain traction, especially as the timber mafia moved en masse to Islamabad to lobby.
However, thanks to activists like Khan Mohammad Qureshi, Ali, community members and friends in the media, the issue never really went away. They were hoping to raise enough of a hue and cry to bring it to the notice of the Chief Justice so he would take notice of this rape of Pakistan’s natural resources. The were also exploring the possibility of filing a petition and dragging Raja Pervez Ashraf to court to answer for this loot and pillage. Here it goes to the credit of the PPP Senator Saeeda Iqbal, who not only took notice of the issue, but asked for a summary to be moved against the order of the Prime Minister who belonged to her party. The Senate Standing Committee on Climate Change instructed the Secretary MoCC to move the summary for overturning the former PM’s order, despite the fact that this was a provincial matter.
The efforts started in April, but the slow pace of the due process has allowed for the indiscriminate felling of trees continued until again in June, another lady lent her strength to the cause. Marriyam Aurangzeb of PML-N and her colleague Junaid Anwar Chaudhury brought the issue to the floor of the National Assembly through a call to attention notice. Finally, the efforts bore fruit and the ban on transportation of timber has again been imposed w.e.f July 07, 2013. However, the delay in notifying this is alarming.
The latest pictures of just two days ago show that in the absence of the authorities receiving notification, timber is still being moved. This needs to be stopped right away. While the damage has been done, it is hoped the lead provided by these two ladies will be followed by others who can become champions of the country’s natural resources, and we hope to witness such cooperation across party lines, as these are our shared resources. We must also get over the folly of considering these matters to be contained within the provincial domain. Deforestation in the North does not only mean a reduced forest cover in that particular area, that lines the pockets of a certain mafia.
It portends disaster right down to the edge of the Arabian Sea in the form of floods waters that rage unchecked downstream, as they did in 2010. In these last four months of activism to stop the denudation of these forests, the one issue that surfaced in the discourse was of deforestation resulting in silting up of the Tarbela Dam. This is only a part of the problem.
We may be known internationally as a disaster prone country, but unfortunately have not really made a name for ourselves in disaster resilience. Deforestation in Gilgit-Baltistan and Kyber Pakhtunkhwa have disastrous effects on Punjab, parts of Balochistan and vast tracts of Sindh. One hopes we will be spared a rerun of what happened in 2010 after the monsoon deluge, but if any kind of disaster does strike due to this current deforestation spree, the timber mafia that has made billions should be made to foot the bill for relief and rehabilitation!
Climate change: change we can?
Content-wise, the National Climate Change Policy is welcome even though a mixed bag. But what about implementing mechanisms?
On the other hand, countries that have been listed in the category of ‘threatened’ or ‘vulnerable’ have already started taking measures to deal with the threat, which has, in the recent past, proven to be a clear and present danger for them.
Small island nations like the Maldives, Bangladesh, India and even the UAE are far ahead of Pakistan in taking measures to combat the effects of Climate Change. They have put themselves out there for the world to notice and assist them in combating climate change through mitigation and adaptation measures.
They are rapidly turning to alternate energy, green buildings and zero carbon areas, even cities, something Pakistan probably needs to do on a day-before-yesterday basis!
Until now, Pakistan’s response, despite being ranked the highest on the global vulnerability index, had been sporadic and disjointed, and was more ‘project-oriented’ than planned.
The Ministry of Environment, which stood devolved in the aftermath of the 18th Amendment, was going through a crisis of identity. Not only was it divested of its powers, it also lost its name, and after a while morphed into the Ministry of Disaster Management, and has now finally evolved into the Ministry of Climate Change.
While Climate Change may not cover everything that falls under environment, at least it spurred efforts to finally come up with a plan to deal with it. This led to the unveiling of the National Climate Change Policy which was the culmination of the effort of the Task Force constituted in 2008 for its formulation by seeking inputs from stakeholders drawn from the scientific community, academia, NGOs and the civil society.
The areas of focus, especially in an under-developed country like Pakistan, of course, were water, food and energy security. It also talks about the conservation of the Third Pole, the glaciers in the Hindukush-Karakoram areas.
Disaster resilience and disaster risk reduction also had to be factored in due to the incontrovertible evidence of increase in extreme events impacting millions of lives as in the floods of 2010. The lean economy, too, has no cushion against the losses amounting to billions of dollars in the wake of such disasters.
Such events not only create environmental, human, economic, and social stresses, they set the country back on the achievement of development goals as it does not have the coping mechanism to absorb such repeated shocks.
This is exactly what has happened in Pakistan and our poor development indices are proof.
A World Bank report rings another warning bell for all countries falling within the South Asian region, of which Pakistan is a part.
It states that: ‘In the South Asia Region (SAR), the number of disasters per year has quadrupled over the past four decades. Resulting damages have accumulated to over US$25 billion in the past five years alone. Despite increasing disaster risk in SAR, awareness and understanding of this risk among individuals and governments remains low. As an emerging topic, exposure and vulnerability to natural hazards and their consequential impacts are not yet at the forefront of development agendas.’
So what does the National Climate Change Policy entail and how will it change the situation. It touches on all of the aforementioned issues, along with the conservation of biodiversity and issues related to the forest cover.
It adds to Pakistan’s collection of very well made policies, something the country is famous for. Its policies have even been adopted by other countries, like South Korea, which peaked as an economic power through its implementation.
Implementation at home, however, has always been the weakest link in the chain. The fears cited by those who have gone over the NCCP are no different. An important subject like the environment has been devolved, much against the reservations, and recommendations of the experts in the field.
It is now a provincial subject and in the hands of ministries and departments, who fall way short of the capacity to implement or govern this agenda or the vision contained within this agenda.
While critics of the devolution process have been saying it in other instances, too, here it has been pretty much a case of putting the cart before the horse. If even while the debate on the 18th Amendment was ongoing, and an effort had been made to upgrade and upscale the capacity of the provincial ministries, the situation may not have been so depressing.
However, in the current scenario, there is no answer to the question as to how the National Climate Change Policy will be implemented by the provinces when all related sectoral functions are also devolved, and disconnected; like agriculture, food, water, forestry, transport, which impacts the air quality, disaster management, etc. They do not fall under one umbrella.
On the governance front, too, while Punjab has functioning green courts, they do not exist elsewhere, and the writ of the EPAs has been flouted and violated in instances that are too many to recount!
Then, again on a broader level, the vision for the conservation of the glaciers is commendable but that transcends the borders of the country. That is a regional issue. How can a policy that has to be implemented by the provinces extend its writ to regional issues?
Then again, the issue of generating adequate financing for achieving all that is contained within the policy has not been clearly spelled out. Pakistan needs huge financial assistance to develop climate resilience.
At a recent forum, The Director General of Environment, MoCC informed the audience that at the U.N. Conference on Climate Change that was held in Doha in November-December 2012, Pakistan succeeded in the establishment of funding mechanism for preparation of National Adaptation Plans through special Climate Change funds operated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
Pakistan also successfully pursued the formation of an international mechanism for addressing the issue of “Loss and Damage” caused due to floods, sea level rise, Cyclones and other Climate related disasters.”
This is an encouraging move. But not enough is said in the policy about generating financing through Clean Development Mechanisms, or about emissions curbing through reforestation despite being a signatory of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestations and forest Degradation).
The effects of Climate Change on heritage sites and the changing pattern of monsoon and its severity on aviation has also not been looked into adequately, despite the unfortunate crash of Bhoja Airlines which, in the opinion of aviation experts, as well as environmental experts, had all the elements of an unexpected weather phenomenon hitting the aircraft, causing it to crash.
Climate change’s impact on gender, health, and rapid urbanization, an increase in the number of cli-migrants or climate refugees has not been extensively dealt with either. And to reiterate, even if all these issues had been highlighted, one wonders what the implementing mechanisms were.
The fear is that like many other policies that spell out a vision without a clear roadmap with goals for implementation, this will remain a document that will become obsolete because of the lack of an action plan that needed to be rolled out in tandem.
What we have to wait and see at this juncture in our history is that with political parties readying themselves for elections and unveiling their manifestoes, how many have an understanding of critical national issues like these.
Commendably, Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaf got a head start by adding environment to its list of other policies for the electorate to ponder. What makes one sit up and take notice is the fact that it was prepared by Malik Amin Aslam, former minister of state for environment and current Global Vice Chairman of International Union for Conservation of Nature, and Climate Policy Advisor to the UNDP.
He is one of the few persons in Pakistan who command knowledge about how the carbon market works and how Pakistan can generate finance through the CDMs.
As far as our National Climate Change Policy is concerned, we really need to figure out how a global, transboundary issue can be tackled by implementers who are going to be largely provincial in focus!
Changes in precipitation and drought cycles, humidity, water-table levels and ensuing soil chemistry will impact archaeological sites
Granted that a country, which is not able to take care of its living, is hardly likely to put its archaeological heritage on top of its priority list. However, it is about time attention was diverted towards this important issue.
To be fair, there was a time when Pakistan showcased its heritage for the world to see. And very proudly so. Over the years seven of its sites were included in the Unesco World Heritage site list:
• Archaeological Ruins at Mohenjo-Daro
• Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City
• Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol
• Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore
• Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta
• Rohtas Fort
Their unique importance in world history has been the reason for their inclusion. They are monitored carefully by the world body. Even the global importance of the other remains of previous civilizations has kept many international organizations and scholars interested in them and they and their state of preservation have been well documented.
Before the confusion created by the half-baked 18th Amendment kicked in and made a mish mash of the devolved, capacity-challenged provincial set-up, the Federal Archaeology Department under the Ministry of Culture, was taking care of all sites and explorations. Now, it is scratching its head trying to ensure that this heritage does not just crumble away.
However, the vagaries of time and weather are not the only phenomenon that one needs to worry about. There is also the looming specter of climate change that must be factored in all future plans for renovation and preservation of these sites.
Pakistan is already facing the impact through shifting monsoon patterns and frequent flooding and other natural disasters like cyclones. But are we looking at how these will impact monuments and ancient settlements? How can we help save our history from being wiped out?
When the Director General of Archaeology, Dr. Fazal Dad Kakar was asked about this, he said:
“The Department of Archaeology and Museums has not yet made any baseline study of the impact on climate change on the archaeological heritage of Pakistan. However, the Unesco World Heritage Centre (Paris) has made considerable progress in this regard. Unesco Expert Missions in collaboration with the State Parties to the Unesco World Heritage Convention is closely monitoring the impact of climate changes on World Heritage Sites. Reports of the Unesco Expert Missions about World Heritage sites and their suggestions for taking preventive measures on World Heritage Sites, against the adverse impacts of climate changing are equally useful for other archaeological sites”.
“In terms of actual effects on archaeology and the historic environment, climate change will have direct impact from rising sea levels and coastal erosion; more frequent storms and heavy rainfall episodes; flooding, landslips and erosion; changing seasonal patterns; drought and drying out of wetlands and archaeological sites.
The environment in which archaeological material is found is of great significance for how the material is protected. Climate change will also affect archaeological sites in different ways, depending on whether they are in air, earth, ice, snow or water.
Climate change can damage archaeological sites. Changes in precipitation and drought cycles, in humidity, water-table levels and ensuing soil chemistry will, inevitably, impact the conservation of archaeological remains.
Temperature rise, especially the melting of glaciers and rising sea levels are also expected to take their toll on the archaeological sites like Banbhore which are situated in coastal areas.
Rainfall and flooding due to climate change is already undermining the fragile earthen fabric of the World Heritage site of Mohenjo-Daro and other archaeological sites situated in the Indus Basin.
Of special concern is the fact that climate change may jeopardize the conservation of precious evidences whose existence is not even known today.
After devolution thanks to the 18th Amendment, archaeological sites handed over to the provinces are at risk, because, no uniform policy for protection and preservation of the cultural heritage sites has so far been formulated at the national level.
At present, cultural heritage sites and monuments are at the mercy of administrators and so-called conservationists. Their work is far removed from all norms and principles of conservation and integrity of the sites has been compromised. There should be a national strategy for protection of the cultural heritage from all human and naturally devastating elements.”
This certainly paints a pretty dismal picture of the situation on ground. Lack of cohesive national planning in matters that transcend provincial, even national boundaries is putting this valuable heritage at great risk.
To try and understand what exactly are the threats that the monuments and other historical treasures may face, Piquespoke to Dr. Pervaiz Amir, a climate change expert and member of the Prime Minister’s Task Force on Climate change.
According to him, “even if looked at within Pakistan’s context, the climatic factors like snow, ice, fog, flash floods and sea level rise are likely to have a negative impact on the archaeological sites in different parts of Pakistan. While there is a danger that we may lose the ones located in Thatta and Badin completely, the elements mentioned here will enhance the effects of ice and snow, which are going to be particularly damaging to our sites and monuments in the northern regions due to the severity of weathering on the monuments.
“Similarly, fog, when it moves to the plains of Sindh will have an adverse effect on the structures, just as the extremely high temperatures will damage the brick and marble surfaces, and dull the tile works as is used in Multan and Sindh.
“Also, the shifting pattern of rainfall, as has been experienced this year and increase in its quantity and the resultant flash floods pose yet another threat. Over the long term however, we must be mindful of the period of impending drought likely to bring up salt content in the soil, which again would be damaging to the structures.
“Other than these climatic factors, one must look at the human dimension of the problem, too. Climate change is likely to result in human migration to safer places, and the pressure on resources will make it difficult to save the archaeological sites from human encroachments.”
These are dire warnings indeed, and need to be heeded on an urgent basis. There cannot be a piecemeal, province wise solution to things that require strategic thinking on a national level. Greater thought should have gone into the fallout of the 18th Amendment that devolved subjects like environment and archaeology to the provinces.
When Pique asked Shahid Sayeed Khan, Director of Indus Earth Trust, and an environmental architect, to explain how the changing climate can impact the archaeological sites, he said:
“The changing climate is not only affecting flora and fauna but also the built environment, especially our heritage which, in some instances, dates back more than 3000BC.
Excessive rainfall and floods have already affected Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. For years, the problem in these locations, was and still is excessive salinity which increases as the land gets water logged.
Drought has had the same affect on some of our legendary forts that are adjacent to deserts and salt ranges. Lack of moisture crumbles the stone or brick over time till it loses its strength, causing collapse of entire walls and roofs.
Soil erosion is perhaps, the greatest threat to our heritage. Naturally, if foundations are weakened the entire structure of a building is affected. Excessive water or the lack of it is now becoming apparent in Pakistan as it is now classified as one of five countries most affected by climate change.”
So what is it that can be done and who will do it? With the system of governance in disarray, whose help can Pakistan elicit to save these treasures for posterity?
Jawed Ali Khan, the Director General Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, had this to say:
“This is indeed a very important aspect towards which attention had not been paid in the past but it certainly deserves attention. Just as any other infrastructure or settlement is likely to be affected by the ravages of climate change, so will our archaeological sites across Pakistan.
Maybe organizations like Unesco can set up a fund that will address this important issue. We need experts to look into the threats that the archaeological heritage of Pakistan faces because this is a shared heritage of universal value.”
Dr. Harald Hauptmann of Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Research Unit Karakorum and archaeological expert on the Chilas heritage, told Pique: “Possible impact of climate change on archaeological heritage is a difficult theme. Organic materials such as manuscripts or wooden artifacts are better preserved in dry environments such as deserts or even in regions such as around Gilgit or Chilas, but increasing humidity as we noticed this summer will have an effect on those archaeological remains. But, there will be no damage on architectural remains or rock carvings along the Upper Indus. The danger for this historical heritage is caused by building activities, the upgrading of the KKH and future dam projects.”
All the experts Pique spoke to acknowledged that climate change poses a clear and present danger to the archeological treasure of Pakistan. What we need now is some action plan that can map out the threats, and chart a way forward to combat them.
The rich land
Pakistan is home to some of the oldest civilizations the world has known.
•Balochistan has cave paintings that date back to 18,000BC.
• Soan Valley has revealed the existence of Paleolithic sites, while the land is dotted with evidences of Mesolithic andNeolithic settlements.
• Mehergarh, which flourished about 7000 years ago, Indus Valley Civilization, whose towns of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappawere models of urban planning 5,500 years ago.
• Asoka left his edicts on obelisks, and we have temples at Hinglaj, in agar Parkar, at Katas Raj.
• The Buddhists rock carvings and monasteries and universities dot the valley that came to be known as Gandhara afterthem.
• The Muslims left relics like Bhambore, Makli, the beautiful tiled mausoleums of saints dotting the plains of Sindh andPunjab, the grand forts, palaces, mosques and final resting places of their pets, patriarchs, matriarchs, mentors andmistresses. Very few other countries can boast of such a diverse archaeological, historical and cultural richness.
Present and clear danger
On the global vulnerability index prepared by global agencies, Pakistan is right at the top in terms of likely climate change impact. In the words of the environmentalists, Pakistan is a ‘multi-threat’ country. Threats Pakistan is likely to face:
•Glacial melting in the northern areas will lead to flooding down stream.
• Loss of water source in north to result in drought in plains, especially the breadbasket.
• Rising temperatures will contribute to desertification.
• Sea level rise to flood coastal areas, resulting in massive destruction and displacement.
This article was originally published in PIQUE.